Heterodoxia jurídica no sul global: desigualdade e direito contratual comparado





direito contratual, desigualdade, direito comparado, direito e desenvolvimento, heterodoxia jurídica


Existem diferenças entre o direito privado dos países em desenvolvimento e o direito dos países desenvolvidos? A literatura frequentemente oferece uma das seguintes respostas: ou o direito dos países em desenvolvimento é antiquado e ineficiente, exigindo modernização, ou é perfeitamente adequado do ponto de vista formal, mas carece de efetividade. O presente artigo busca questionar essas visões ao apresentar como os tribunais da África do Sul e da Colômbia, assim como os brasileiros, têm buscado incorporar preocupações distributivas nas decisões em matéria de direito contratual – fenômeno que denominamos de “heterodoxia contratual”. O reconhecimento da heterodoxia contratual em países em desenvolvimento chama a atenção para as manifestações existentes, embora mais limitadas, do mesmo fenômeno em países desenvolvidos. Sugere-se que a desigualdade e a injustiça social persistentes minam as premissas que alicerçam a defesa do direito contratual ortodoxo, conduzindo a um renovado interesse pela heterodoxia contratual ao redor do mundo na atualidade.


Não há dados estatísticos.


ACKERMAN, Bruce. Regulating slum housing markets on behalf of the poor: of housing codes, housing subsidies and income redistribution policy. Yale Law Journal, v. 80, n. 6, p. 1093-1197, 1971.

AGARWAL, Sumit et al. Regulating consumer financial products: evidence from credit cards. Quarterly Journal of Economics, v. 130, n. 1, p. 111-164, 2015.

AHLERING, Beth; DEAKIN, Simon. Labor regulation, corporate governance, and legal origin: a case of institutional complementarity? Law and Society Review, v. 41, n. 4, p. 865-908, 2007.

ALSTON, Lee J. Farm foreclosure moratorium legislation: a lesson from the past. American Economic Review, v. 74, n. 3, p. 445-457, 1984.

ALVAREDO, Faculdo et al. (coord.). World inequality report 2018. Disponível em: https://wir2018.wid.world/files/download/wir2018-full-report-english.pdf. Acesso em: 4 fev. 2021.

ARIDA, Persio; BACHA, Edmar Lisboa; LARA-RESENDE, André. Credit, interest, and jurisdictional uncertainty: conjectures on the case of Brazil. In: GIAVAZZI, Francesco et al. (ed.). Inflation targeting, debt, and the brazilian experience, 1999 to 2003. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2005.

BAGCHI, Aditi. Distributive injustice and private law. Hastings Law Journal, v. 60, n. 1, p. 105-148, 2008.

BAHAMÓN, Gabriela Z. Constitutionalización y protección de derechos fundamentales en el contrato de seguros. Revista Ibero-Latinoamericana de Seguros, v. 25, n. 45, p. 233-268, 2016.

BANCO MUNDIAL. Development Research Group. Gini index. Disponível em: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.GINI. Acesso em: 19 fev. 2021.

BAR-GILL, Oren; BEN-SHAHAR, Omri. Regulatory techniques in consumer protection: a critique of european consumer contract law. Common Market Law Review, v. 50, n. 1, p. 109-125, 2013.

BARNETT, Randy E. A consent theory of contract. Columbia Law Review, v. 86, n. 2, p. 269-321, 1986.

BENSON, Peter. Justice in transactions: a theory of contract law. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2019.

BOTERO, Juan et al. The regulation of labor. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, v. 119, n. 4, p. 1339-1382, 2004.

BRUNOTTE, Nico; ELSAß, Lennart. The German Bundestag resolves amendments to contract law to mitigate the consequences of the coronoavirus crisis, 2020. Disponível em: https://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=1c9b4738-ce3f-44df-b5a9-044e449e3b55. Acesso: 4 fev. 2021.

CARUSO, Daniela. The baby and the bath water: the American critique of European contract law. American Journal of Comparative Law, v. 61, n. 3, p. 479-506, 2013.

CHEREDNYCHENKO; Olha O.; REICH, Norbert. The constitutionalization of European contract law: gateways, constraints and challenges. European Review of Private Law, v. 23, n. 5, p. 797-827, 2015.

COLLINS, Hugh. Distributive justice through contracts. Current Legal Problems, v. 45, n. 2, p. 49-67, 1992.

CRANE, Daniel A. Antitrust and wealth inequality. Cornell Law Review, v. 101, n. 5, p. 1171-1228, 2016.

CRASWELL, Richard. Passing on the costs of legal rules: efficiency and distribution in buyer-seller relationships. Stanford Law Review, v. 43, n. 2, p. 361-398, 1991.

DAGAN, Hanoch; HELLER, Michael. The choice theory of contracts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017.

DIXON, Rosalind; SUK, Julie. Liberal constitutionalism and economic inequality. The University of Chicago Law Review, v. 85, n. 2, p. 369-401, 2018.

EISENBERG, Melvin A. The theory of contracts. In: BENSON, Peter (ed.). The theory of contract law: new essays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

ELHAUGE, Einer. Horizontal shareholding. Harvard Law Review, v. 129, n. 5, p. 1267-1317, 2016.

FALCÃO NETO, Joaquim de Arruda; SCHUARTZ, Luis Fernando; ARGUELHES, Diego Werneck. Jurisdição, incerteza e estado de direito. Revista de Direito Administrativo, v. 243, p. 79-112, 2006.

FENNELL, Lee Anne; McADAMS. The distributive deficit in law and economics. Minnesota Law Review, v. 100, n. 3, p. 1051-1130, 2016.

FERRAZ, Octavio Luiz Motta. Harming the poor through social rights litigation: lessons from Brazil. South Texas Law Review, v. 89, p. 1643-1668, 2011.

FLEMING, Anne. The rise and fall of unconscionability as the ‘law of the poor’. Georgetown Law Journal, v. 102, n. 5, p. 1383-1441, 2014.

FRIED, Charles. The ambitions of contract as promise. 2. ed. Nova Iorque: Oxford University Press, 2015.

FRIED, Charles. Contract as promise: a theory of contractual obligation. Cambrige: Harvard University Press, 1981.

FRIEDMAN, Lawrence M. A history of American law. 4. ed. Nova Iorque: Oxford University Press, 2019.

GILSON, Ronald J. Controlling family shareholders in developing countries. Stanford Law Review, v. 60, n. 2, p. 633-656, 2007.

GORDLEY, James. Equality in exchange. California Law Review, v. 69, n. 6, p. 1587-1656, 1981.

HAILBRONNER, Michaela. Transformative constitutionalism: not only in the Global South. American Journal of Comparative Law, v. 65, n. 3, p. 527-565, 2017.

HALL, Peter A.; SOSKICE, David. Varieties of capitalism: the institutional foundations of comparative advantage. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

HERSHKOFF, Helen. “Just words”: common law and the enforcement of state constitutional social rights. Stanford Law Review, v. 62, n. 6, p. 1521-1582, 2010.

HERSHKOFF, Helen. Lecture: the private life of public rights: state constitutions and the common law. New York University Law Review, v. 88, n. 1, p. 1-23, 2013.

HOVENKAMP, Hebert. The first great law & economics movement. Stanford Law Review, v. 42, n. 4, p. 993–1058, 1990

KAPLOW, Louis; SHAVELL, Steven. Why the legal system is less efficient than the income tax in redistributing income. The Journal of Legal Studies, v. 23, n. 2, p. 667-681, 1994.

KENNEDY, Duncan. Distributive and paternalist motives in contract and tort law, with special reference to compulsory terms and unequal bargaining power. Maryland Law Review, v. 41, n. 4, p. 563-658, 1982.

KENNEDY, Duncan. Form and substance in private law adjudication. Harvard Law Review, v. 89, p. 1685-1778, 1976.

KHANNA, Tarun; YAFEH, Yashay. Business groups in emerging markets: paragons or parasites? Journal of Economic Literature, v. 45, n. 2, p. 331-372, 2007.

KLARE, Karl E. Legal culture and transformative constitutionalism. South African Journal on Human Rights, v. 14, n. 1, p. 146-188, 1998.

KORDANA, Kevin A.; TABACHNICK, David. Rawls & contract law. George Washington Law Review, v. 73, n. 3, p. 598-632, 2005.

KRONMAN, Anthony T. Contract law and distributive justice. Yale Law Journal, v. 89, n. 3, p. 472-512, 1980.

LAMOUNIER, Bolívar; SOUZA, Amaury. As elites brasileiras e o desenvolvimento nacional: fatores de consenso e dissenso: relatório de pesquisa. São Paulo: IDESP, 2002.

LAWLESS, Robert M.; WARREN, Elizabeth. Shrinking the safety net: the 2005 changes in U.S. bankruptcy law, 2006. Disponível em: https://ssrn.com/abstract=949629. Acesso em: 4 fev. 2021.

LISCOW, Zachary. Is efficiency biased? The University of Chicago Law Review, v. 85, n. 7, p. 1649-1718, 2018.

LISCOW, Zachary. Redistribution for realists: working paper, 2020. Disponível em: https://law.yale.edu/sites/default/files/documents/faculty/papers/liscow_-_redistribution_for_realists_2020-08-03.pdf. Acesso em: 4 fev. 2021.

LISCOW, Zachary. Reducing inequality on the cheap: when legal rule design should incorporate equity as well as efficiency. Yale Law Journal, v. 123, n. 7, p. 2134-2573, 2014.

LUSTIG, Nora. Inequality and fiscal redistribution in middle income countries: Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Indonesia, Mexico, Peru and South Africa. Journal of Globalization and Development, v. 7, n. 1, p. 17-60, 2016.

MALDONALDO, Daniel B. (ed.). Constitutionalism of the Global South: the activist tribunals of India, South Africa and Colombia. Nova Iorque: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

MARKOVITS, Richard S. Why Kaplow and Shavell’s “double-distortion argument” articles are wrong. George Mason Law Review, n. v. 13, n. 3, p. 511-619, 2005.

McDONNELL, Brett H. The economists’ new arguments. Minnesota Law Review, v. 88, p. 86-118, 2003.

NOZICK, Robert. Anarchy, State and utopia. Nova Iorque: Basic Books, 1974.

PARGENDLER, Mariana. Análise econômica e jurídica da “presunção de boa-fé no direito privado brasileiro”. In: YEUNG, Luciana (ed.). Análise econômica do direito: temas contemporâneos. São Paulo: Actual, 2020a.

PARGENDLER, Mariana. Contract law and development: the missing link? The George Washington Law Review, v. 85, n. 6, p. 1717-1738, 2017.

PARGENDLER, Mariana. Controlling shareholders in the twenty-first century: complicating corporate governance beyond agency costs. Journal of Corporation Law, v. 45, p. 953-975, 2020b.

PARGENDLER, Mariana. The role of the State in contract law: the common-civil law divide. Yale Journal of International Law, v. 43, n. 1, p. 143-189, 2018.

PIKETTY, Thomas. Capital in the twenty-first century. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2013.

PINHEIRO, Armando C. Judiciário, reforma e economia: a visão dos magistrados. Rio de Janeiro: IPEA, 2002.

PORTUGAL GOUVÊA, Carlos. Social rights against the poor. Vienna Journal on International Constitutional Law, v. 7, n. 4, p. 454-475, 2013.

POSNER, Eric A. Contract law in the welfare State: a defense of the unconscionability doctrine, usury laws, and related limitations on the freedom to contract. Journal of Legal Studies, v. 24, n. 2, p. 283-319, 1995.

RAWLS, John. Political liberalism: expanded edition. Nova Iorque: Columbia University Press, 2005.

REZENDE, Cristiane L.; ZYLBERSZTAJN, Decio. Pacta sunt servanda versus the social role of contracts: the case of Brazilian agriculture contracts. Revista de Economia e Sociologia Rural, v. 50, n. 2, p. 207-221, 2012.

RIPSTEIN, Arthur. Force and freedom: Kant’s legal and political philosophy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2009.

SALAMA, Bruno. Direito do consumidor e decisões bumerangues. Valor Econômico, São Paulo, 13 nov. 2015. Disponível em: https://valor.globo.com/opiniao/coluna/direito-do-consumidor-e-decisoes-bumerangues.ghtml. Acesso em: 12 mar. 2021.

SALAMA, Bruno. Meyerhof. Spread bancário e enforcement contratual: hipótese de causalidade reversa e evidência empírica. Revista Brasileira de Economia, v. 71, v. 1, p. 111-133, 2017.

SCOTT, Robert E. A joint maximization theory of contract and regulation. In: DAGAN, Hanoch; ZIPURSKY, Benjamin C. (ed.). Research handbook on private law theory. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2020.

SHAVELL, Steven. A note on efficiency v. distributional equity in legal rulemaking: should distributional equity matter given optimal income taxation? American Economic Review, v. 71, n. 2, p. 414-418, 1981.

SILVA, Virgílio Afonso da; TERRAZAS, Fernanda V. Claiming the right to health in Brazilian courts: the exclusion of the already excluded? Law & Social Inquiry, v. 36, n. 4, p. 825-853, 2011.

SILVA, Vivian Lara dos Santos; AZEVEDO, Paulo Furquim de. Contratos interfirmas em diferentes ambientes institucionais: o caso McDonald’s França versus Brasil. Revista de Administração, v. 41, n. 4, p. 381-393, 2006.

SKEEL, David A. Skeel, Jr. Vern countryman and the path of progressive (and populist) bankruptcy scholarship. Harvard Law Review, v. 113, n. 5, p. 1075-1129, 2000.

SPAMANN, Holger. Contemporary legal transplants: legal families and the diffusion of (corporate) law. BYU Law Review, v. 2009, n. 6, p. 1813-1878, 2009.

STUDY GROUP ON SOCIAL JUSTICE IN EUROPEAN PRIVATE LAW. Social justice in European contract law: a manifesto. European Law Journal, v. 10, n. 6, p. 653-674, 2004.

THE AMERICAN LAW INSTITUTE. Restatement of the law consumer contracts tentative draft, 2019. Disponível em: https://www.ali.org/publications/show/consumer-contracts/. Acesso em: 4 fev. 2021.

TIMM, Luciano Benetti. Ainda sobre a função social do direito contratual no Código civil brasileiro: justiça distributiva versus eficiência econômica. Revista da AMDE, v. 2, p. 1-40, 2009.

TREBILCOCK, Michael J. The limits of freedom of contract. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993.

TUSHNET, Mark. The inadequacy of judicial enforcement of constitutional rights provisions to rectify economic inequality, and the inevitability of the attempt. In: KHURSHID, Salman et al. (ed.). Judicial review: process, power and problems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020.

UNGER, Roberto Mangabeira. The critical legal studies movement. Harvard Law Review, v. 96, p. 561-575, 1983.

VAN LOO, Rory. Broadening consumer law: competition, protection, and distribution. Notre Dame Law Review, v. 95, n. 1, p. 211-261, 2019.

VERSTEEG, Mila. Can rights combat economic inequality? Harvard Law Review, v. 133, p. 2017-2060, 2020.

VILHENA, Oscar et al. (ed.) Transformative constitutionalism: comparing the apex courts of Brazil, India and South Africa. Joanesburgo: Pretoria University Law Press, 2013.

WEISBACH, David A. Should legal rules be used to redistribute income? University of Chicago Law Review, v. 70, n. 1, p. 439-453, 2003.

WHITMAN, James. The two western cultures of privacy: dignity versus liberty. Yale Law Journal, v. 113, p. 1151-1221, 2004.

WORLD BANK. Doing business 2020: comparing business regulations in 190 economies. Washington: World Bank, 2020.

ZWEIGERT, Konrad; KÖTZ, Hein. An introduction to comparative law. 3. ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

YEUNG, Luciana; AZEVEDO, Paulo Furquim. Nem Robin Hood, nem King John: testando o viés anti-credor e anti-devedor dos magistrados brasileiros. Economic Analysis of Law Review, v. 6, n. 1, p. 1-21, 2015.




Como Citar

DAVIS, K. E.; PARGENDLER, M. Heterodoxia jurídica no sul global: desigualdade e direito contratual comparado. Suprema - Revista de Estudos Constitucionais, Distrito Federal, Brasil, v. 1, n. 1, p. 267–298, 2021. DOI: 10.53798/suprema.2021.v1.n1.a25. Disponível em: https://suprema.stf.jus.br/index.php/suprema/article/view/25. Acesso em: 19 jul. 2024.